Faculty of Leadership & Business Administration Assignment Answers
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DIPLOMA IN BUSINESS ADMINISTARTION
1ST YEAR – SEMESTER 1 (3 YEARS)
ASSIGNMENT HANDBOOK 2021
BUSINESS COMMUNICATION 511
FKI is a multinational group of companies engaged mainly in engineering. It has member companies in the UK, the USA and Europe. The independently managed Companies within the Group are involved in design and manufacture and supply a wide range of high-tech solutions to engineering products and services, to the material handling, hardware and automotive engineering industries. FKI member Companies have customers throughout the world and have earned an international reputation as leaders in their field. Building and maintaining a reputation such as this is gained by dedication to quality and technical excellence – a clear priority when meeting customer needs. This means that the Companies must stay ahead of competitors in aspects of quality and innovation. But it is the people within those companies who are vital to its success in rapidly changing markets. Employees at all levels need to cope with the rate of change unlike anything they have known before – a pace of change which will go on increasing.
Meeting the challenge of change has meant that restructuring within parts of the Group has been necessary for recent years. This has caused uncertainty and anxiety amongst some employees, requiring their commitment to the company, their patience and goodwill. What are the priorities of successful Companies such as those in the FKI Group when it comes to handling change? Managers throughout FKI Companies acknowledge that success comes through people at all levels working as a team, working together to solve problems. If they are to do this successfully, they need to communicate properly. This means Talking!
THE PROCESS OF COMMUNICATION
Communication needs to flow in all directions in a successful organisation. The Board needs to devolve its objectives through management to all employees but equally need to be able to receive ideas and input from all corners of the business. Here are some of the way’s businesses communicate:
Each employee receives an annual statement from the Managing Director of his or her Company which summarises Company successes or problems in the previous year. It provides an outline of changes planned for the year ahead and how these fit into the Company strategy for the medium and long term. It also summarises the financial progress of the Company.
Messages about new developments and changes in production methods or the solutions to problems can be rapidly cascaded by team briefings – a regular and systematic provision of up to date information. The Board agrees with key messages, these are communicated face to face with managers, managers pass these on in face to face meetings with supervisors and they in turn pass on the messages through similar meetings with production teams.
“Quality Improvement Teams” Sometimes a problem can be solved or change achieved by bringing together people from different departments and different levels to deal with a specific issue. It might be the introduction of a different manufacturing process or a problem with defective products, missed deadlines or customer complaints. The Group is brought together to discuss a particular issue for a specified period, it makes recommendations and disbands.
All employees agree with their immediate manager the scope of their job. This Job Description means that the objectives, duties required, responsibilities and performance levels expected are understood and can be used as a basis for regular appraisal. At appraisals, the manager can give feedback to employees on how well they are performing against job requirements, the employees can express any ideas they might have for improving their performance and together they might identify any training needs which need to be met.
Employees are encouraged to produce ideas – in writing or orally – on how products, processes or administrative procedures can be improved. A sifting committee drawn from various parts of the organisation checks out the feasibility of the proposals and assesses their worth. Sometimes cash awards are made for ideas which when adopted can help the organisation to save money or improve customer services without additional costs.
An Active communications policy has been adopted by the Board. Directors use half-yearly meetings to keep employees informed of long-term strategies, future developments for the Company, how it will get there and what role the employees will play. The meetings also provide an opportunity for questions to be asked of Directors. Points raised can include order intake, new product development and new investment.
The Company has five operating departments and each has a monthly review meeting. Every three months, group meetings known as sector boards bring together representatives from the various departments. These provide a means of jointly dealing with common problems or new developments and the results are communicated to the Directors.
The Management Team puts a heavy emphasis on Top-down communications to keep the workforce informed on what is happening in the Company. Notice boards are regularly used to inform employees of new appointments in the organisation, new orders and trends in orders and sales. Senior Managers attend a regular monthly meeting with Directors and then cascade information gained throughout their departments. Whatever methods of communication are used, formal or informal, written or spoken, they should contribute to keeping employees continually informed on the following key questions:
- What do I need to do?
- Where does my work come from and go to?
- Why is my job important?
- Who is my line manager?
- What are my work targets?
- What changes are being made and why?
- How can I help to improve what is done?
There is a role in the workplace for every method of communication, but any successful communication strategy cannot omit face to face communication and the spoken word. Messages are much more readily absorbed when received in this way.
QUESTION 1 (50)
With aid of practical examples discuss the four major communication points that FKI Companies would have used to better manage their communication dilemma. Ensure that you include the advantages of good communication skills as a tool to decision making.
QUESTION 2 (20)
Briefly describe how organisations such as FKI Companies should do to improve intercultural communication?
QUESTION 3 (20)
Give an account of the major differences between verbal and non-verbal communication.
BUSINESS MANAGEMENT 511
Read the case study below and answer ALL the questions that follow.
SHOPRITE REPORTS RECORD SALES
South Africa’s largest retailer, Shoprite on Tuesday (8 September), reported a healthy rise in its key market for the 52 weeks to 28 June 2020, despite significant Covid-19 lockdown restrictions impacting the group. “Our core Supermarkets RSA operating segment increased sales by 8.7%, representing a R9.8 billion increase to R122.4 billion. Our Supermarkets Non-RSA continuing operations’ sales declined by 1.4% in rand terms, however, it increased by 6.6% in constant currency terms,” said chief executive officer, Pieter Engelbrecht.
- Sale of merchandise increased by 4% to a record R156.9 billion;
- Excluding the impact of hyperinflation, trading profit increased by 4% to R8.3 billion;
- Diluted headline earnings per share (DHEPS) increased by 5% to 765.8 cents;
- Adjusted DHEPS increased by 6% to 717.5 cents;
- Full year dividend, in line with Group policy of 2x DHEPS cover, increased by 1% to 383 cents;
Shoprite said it opened a total of 147 stores comprising 101 corporate and 46 franchise stores over the period. The group’s core business, Supermarkets RSA, making up 78% of group sales, is represented by 1,638 stores across our major trading banners Shoprite, Usave, Checkers, Checkers Hyper and LiquorShop. As a segment, Supermarkets RSA achieved 8.7% sales growth and on a like-for- like basis grew sales by 6.8%. Second half sales grew by 7.5%. Second half internal inflation of 3.4% increased from the 2.7% reported for the first six months to average 3.0% for the year, Shoprite said. The two weeks preceding South Africa’s initial 35 days of Level 5 lockdown resulted in elevated sales growth across all three of our supermarket brands but noteworthy was the significant growth reported by our repositioned mid-to-upper end Checkers (including Checkers Hyper) business which now represents 39.6% of local sales.
The Checkers supermarket chain, inclusive of 37 larger format Checkers Hypers, increased sale of merchandise by 13.5%. “Checkers’ strategy to grow its share of spend in the mid-to-upper segment of the market continues to underpin the chain’s growth. Checkers, inclusive of Checkers Hyper, now operates from 261 stores in South Africa,” the group said. Of this, the number of stores in the Checkers FreshX format has increased to 28 from 21 stores in the prior year, it said. Shoprite increased sales by 5.5%, adding 6 net new stores to its base to end June 2020 with 503 stores. Usave increased sales by 16.5%, adding 14 net new stores to end the reporting period with 374 stores.
The group’s Liquor business, represented by Shoprite LiquorShop and Checkers LiquorShop’s first half sales growth momentum continued into February and accelerated, pre-lockdown, during March. Covid-19 lockdown regulations then required the complete closure of our liquor business for 66 days and subsequently restricted trade to four days a week (Monday to Thursday) for the month of June. The combination of 20.5% first half sales growth followed by second half sales decline of 29.5% resulted in a 3.3% sales decline for the year. LiquorShop represents 5.8% of Supermarkets RSA’s sales, it said.
Looking ahead, Shoprite said it has ‘considerable project work to catch up on’, due to lockdown. In total, inclusive of our 2020 catch-up, we budget to spend an estimated R4.8 billion in capital expenditure with approximately 95% of the amount relating to our RSA operations.” Taking into account the limitations on trade in certain segments due to existing lockdown regulations, the group said it has traded ahead of expectations since the beginning of July to date.
- Do you think that Shoprite wields some bargaining power as a buyer? (25)
- Discuss Shoprite’s competitive advantage position regarding the other four aspects of Porter’s Five Forces model? (40)
- Explain the key success factors for Shoprite and how they can maintain the market (25)
QUESTION ONE (30 MARKS)
Discuss the followings forms of business ownership:
- Sole trader/ proprietorship
- Close corporation
QUESTION TWO (30 MARKS)
- 1 July 2013 Nicols deposited R60 000 into the bank account of the business as capital.
- 3 July 2013: She bought a second- hand removal van on credit from M Davids for R 100 000
- 3 July 2013: Filled the removal van with petrol and paid cash,
- 4 July 2013: Placed an advertisement in the Peace News for R350 on
- 4 July 2013: Paid his personal telephone account of R470 for June 2013 with a business cheque.
- 7 July 2013: Obtained a loan from Learners Bank for R20
- 10 July 2013: Transported furniture for D Dennis on credit R2
- 14 July 2013: She transferred personal equipment to the value of R10 000 to the
- 17 July 2013: Paid R20 000 to M Davids as payment on the removal
- 18 July 2013: Bought a computer for R5 000 from Movement Ltd and paid by
- 22 July 2013: Received R800 from B Bonolo for the transport of equipment
- 25 July 2013: Received a payment from debtor, D Dennis, R1000
- Prepare the General Ledger of N. Nicols for the year ended July 2013
- Show the record of transaction 1 and 2 in the Accounting Equation
QUESTION THREE (30 MARKS)
On 1 April 2011 , the bank account of Mills Services has a favourable balance of R3 370. The provisional totals of the CRJ and CPJ on 31 April 2011 are R35 350 and R 32 230 respectively, while the bank statement shows a balance of R7 598 on the same date. You have identified the following differences between the cash journals and the bank statement:
- A deposit of R1 590 made on 31 April 2011is not shown on the bank statement.
- The bank has erroneously debited a stop order for R100 against the bank account.
- The following cheques issued by the entity have not yet been presented for payment:
CHEQUE NO. DATE AMOUNT 637 15 April 2011 R286 640 20 April 2011 R319 641 25 April 2011 R83
- P Peters, a debtor, paid an amount R2 110 directly into the entity’s bank The transaction has not yet been recorded in the entity’s books.
- The bank credited R30 interest to the entity’s account.
- Cheque no 633 for R150, issued to John Cena Limited, was entered as R510 in the CPJ.
- Bank charges for April 2011 amount to R140.
- A cheque for R250 received from S Salome was unpaid and is shown as such on the bank statement.
- Update the Cash (15)
- Prepare the Bank account in the General Ledger (7)
- Prepare a bank reconciliation statement as at 30 April 2011 (8)
TRAINING & DEVELOPMENT 511
THE IMPACT OF CORPORATE CULTURE ON TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT AT POLYOAK PACKAGING
Training and development are an important component for the performance and sustainability of all organisations. Different organisations have different cultures that influence how they do things in a particular way. Polyoak Packaging is a privately owned national company consisting of business units that specialise primarily in the design and manufacture of plastic blow moulded, thermo-formed, injection and compression moulded plastic packaging for the dairy, beverage, food, industrial and retail sectors. Its extensive manufacturing and distribution network ensure continuous and excellent customer service across Southern Africa, and the Pinetown branch is a KwaZulu-Natal manufacturer and distributor of quality plastic packaging in which this research study was conducted.
The organisation in KwaZulu-Natal Pinetown has 180 permanent employees (i.e. Production Setters, Supervisors, and Packers) and a 100 Managers in permanent positions at different levels. The Business School is the in-house training facility at Polyoak, founded in 2008 to focus on development and growth of employees through education and training in all the organisation’s branches. The organisation addresses the skills development needs through appropriate and relevant training initiatives. Facilitators are drawn from a range of Polyoak competent experts who are regarded as specialist in their fields and who believe in sharing and passing on their knowledge.
A researcher conducted a study to investigate the impact of corporate culture on training and development of employees attending skills programmes provided at the Business School so that improvements could be made where training and development is affected negatively. Skilled employees have been found to capable of adapting to changing and unpredictable technologies and environments that directly or indirectly affect performance and productivity, either as individuals or as a team unlike the unskilled employees. The challenge that the Business School has been facing with regard to the response from managers and production staff, is the negative perceptions that production employees have towards organisational change, that may require employees to participate in skills development programme.
The researcher is interested in understanding the influence of corporate culture towards the training and development of employees, that the organisation has not investigated before. Hence, why is there such resistance towards Skills Development Programme in the organisation. Lack of knowledge for the organisation to monitor and manage perceptions on corporate culture with respect to employees who undergo training and development programmes within the Polyoak’s Packaging Business School, is an impending problem that requires investigation.
Global competitiveness requires organisations to focus on employees’ training and development as a crucial element to improve business performance and to become sustainable in a volatile and unpredictable marketplace. The corporate culture is therefore a key element or aspect which needs to be studied to understand how it enables employees to learn and apply acquired skills in order to improve organisational performance and therefore delight customers with better and improved service.
Source: http://researchspace.ukzn.ac.za/bitstream/handle/10413/13487/Zuma_Phillip_Mduduzi_2015.pdf? sequence=1&isAllowed=y
QUESTIONS 1: 25 MARKS
- According to the above case study describe what is the main essence of the investigation that the researcher would like to embark upon in doing for the skills programme offered by the Polyoak’s Packaging Business School? (3)
- After reading the above case study, do you think that it is essential for this study to be conducted by this scholar? Motivate your (7)
- The above abstract mentioned corporate culture and it influence towards training and development of employees. Give a brief discussion of what is corporate culture and its influence in training and development programmes implemented in the (15)
QUESTIONS 2: 25 MARKS
After reading the above case study and understanding the nature of business this organisation is involved in, which training and development method will you suggest for this organisation? Give a detailed explanation of why you think that training technique is more suitable for this organisation.
QUESTIONS 3: 25 MARKS
Advise Polyoak’s Packaging Business School on the benefits for them to conduct an evaluation on every training programme that they have facilitated for the organisation.
QUESTIONS 4: 15 MARKS
The above case study mentioned that the skilled employees are more likely to accept any training and development programme implemented in the organisation compared to unskilled workers. According to your understanding what could be the cause for this?
Question 1 [25 Marks]
Assume a monopolistic firm with a constant marginal cost (MC). The firm’s demand schedule is given by table 1 below. Calculate the firm’s total revenue. Average revenue and marginal cost.
|Output||Price (Rands)||Total Revenue||Marginal Revenue|
- Find the firm’s total revenue schedule, entering the data into the table where (10)
- Use these data to determine the marginal revenue schedule (Show calculations) (10)
- Assuming a constant marginal of R40, what output level and price will maximize the firm’s profit? (5)
Question 2 [25 Marks]
Price stability is one of the main macroeconomic objectives hence monetary authorities pursue monetary policy to Suppose that you are a member of the Monetary Policy Committee of the SA Reserve Bank. The economy is experiencing a sharp increase in inflation.
- What are the options for the SARB, what response do you recommend and why? [hint: tools of monetary policy] (15)
- Despite its success, monetary policy has certain limitations and faces real-world complications. Briefly discuss some of the (10)
Question 3 (40 Marks)
Read the case study below and answer the questions that follow.
It has certainly plunged the world economy into a very deep but mercifully a short recession. Everybody’s been hurt. I don’t think anybody’s really been spared by this – it’s a combination of fear, uncertainty and the reaction to the lockdowns. Now, a lot of people blame this deep recession on the lockdowns, but I don’t think that’s a fair assessment. If you look at a country like Sweden, even though they didn’t do a lockdown, their economy still suffered pretty severely.
It is mostly the uncertainty and the fear of catching the virus that is stopping consumers going to the places they normally would, and that’s hurting the economy.
Looking at historical precedents, it’s about three times as bad as the global financial crisis of 2008 in terms of GDP decline on an annual basis. It’s not quite as bad as the Great Depression in the 1930s, where the output drop was sustained over a three to four-year period, and the unemployment rate went up to 25% in the US. This time so far it only went up to 13% in the US, but it’s the worst downturn we’ve had globally since the 30s.
Discuss in detail, with examples, how the COVID 19 pandemic has affected the global economy. (Hint: relate to the macroeconomic objectives).
INFORMATION SYSTEMS 511
Questions 1 (45 MARKS)
A program, or software, consists of a series of related instructions, organized for a common purpose, that tells the computer what tasks to perform and how to perform them. An application, or app, sometimes called application software, consists of programs designed to make users more productive and/or assist them with personal tasks. Other programs, often called tools or utilities, enable you to perform maintenance-type task usually related to managing devices, media, and programs used by computer and mobile devices. An operating system is a set of programs that coordinates all the activities among computer or mobile device hardware
- Describe how an operating system interacts with applications and hardware. Discuss the steps (10)
- Identify and describe key features of productivity (10)
Mobile operating system is the heart of smart phone. Various mobile operating systems like Android, iOS, Windows Phone, Blackberry, Tizen, Sailfish OS, Ubuntu Touch, Firefox OS are available. Each of them has some common as well as unique specialized features.
Discussed their various features for Android, iOS, Windows Phone and Blackberry and Tizen like App support, OS updates, voice assistance, cloud services, map, voice assistance, security and reliability, market share, customization rights and camera settings. (25)
Questions 2 (20 MARKS)
ENTERPRISE STORAGE Enterprise hardware allows large organizations to manage and store data and information using devices intended for heavy use, maximum efficiency, and maximum availability. The availability of hardware to users is a measure of how often it is online. Enterprise storage often uses Fibre Channel (FC) technology as the interface that connects the devices to the network because FC technology has much faster transmission rates than SCSI and other previously discussed interfaces.
- Using practical examples g. diagrams, describe and discuss Network Attached Storage (SAN) and Storage Area Network (SAN). (15)
- Using examples differentiate between a smart card and magnetic stripe Which one do you prefer and why? (5)
Questions 3 (20 MARKS)
Write formulas for the operations based on the spreadsheet given below along with the relevant cell address. You are requiring answering the following questions.
- Calculate the sum of Total Marks of Science, Math’s & Computers for each student and display them in column F. (5)
- Calculate the average marks for each student and display them in column (3)
- Identify the highest marks in Computers and copy the formula display it in cell C7- (5)
- Calculate the total number of students appearing for the Science test and other modules and display it in cell C8-E8. (5)
- Use the “If statement” to insert Symbols from G2-G6 (7)
HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT 511
QUESTIONS 1: 25 MARKS
Personnel management is not something new, it was a practise that started back during the Ancient armies. HR services such as recruiting, selecting, training and motivating employees was seen as the responsibility of the manager, which was needed during the Ancient army. Labour issues began to arise in many other factories, which resulted into the creation of the first hiring office and training programs by 1900.
- After reading the above abstract make a detailed comparison between the past and presence Human Resource Management. (15)
- When the organisation is operating under a new SHRM what will be the new roles of the Human Resource manager? (10)
QUESTIONS 2: 25 MARKS
HR practices are more effective if they aligned with the strategic direction of the organisation and their focus on business operations and implemented professionally. The utilisation of the HR practices becoming an integral part of the organisation strategic plan and implementation has an impact on the performance of the organisation. For this alignment to succeed the roles and activities of the an HR practitioner must change. This entails that HRM must become more accountable to be able to add value to the organisation and align with the business strategy.
Discuss of the expertise that the 21 century HR practitioner need to have to achieve what is illustrated by the above statement.
QUESTIONS 3: 25 MARKS
The main dilemma in which the strength-based approach will bring into the HR department is based on the career management. Career management is the process by which the individual profession is being shaped and planned in accordance with the needs of the organisation. Career management is different from career development in that it is not based on the individual shaping their careers in accordance with their personal needs and inspirations.
- Making reference to the above statement, what is the fundamental difference between career management and career development? (10)
- What are some of the strategies companies can use to promote career management instead of career development in their organisation? (15)
QUESTIONS 4: 15 MARKS
A planned systematic and comprehensive managerial process for developing an organisational environment in which all employees, with similarities and differences, can contribute to the strategic and competitive advantage of the organisation, and where no-one is excluded on the basis of factors unrelated to productivity.
After reading the above statement, explain how can organisations promote and management diversity in the workplace, and how can it have an impact on the productivity of the organisation.
SUPPLY CHAIN MANAGEMENT 511
CASE STUDY: UNILEVER
The below case study is a direct extract from the official Unilever website. Read through the extract and answer the questions that follow:
We’ve been pioneers, innovators and future-makers for over 120 years. The success we’ve achieved means that, today, 2.5 billion people will use our products to feel good, look good and get more out of life. Our brands give us a unique opportunity to create positive change, to grow our business, and to achieve our purpose of making sustainable living commonplace.
An overview of Unilever:
- 5 billion people use our products each day
- 400+ Unilever brands are used by consumers worldwide
- 190 Countries in which our brands are sold
- 155,000 Unilever people deliver our success
- €52 billion (Approximately 1 Trillion Rands) Our turnover in 2019
What Unilever does
We make products that people love – and that makes a difference.
- Household care
- Indulgent ice creams.
- Affordable, disease-combating .. and many more.
Alan Jope, CEO, Unilever states:
“We make around 400 much-loved brands. Shoppers buy them in more than 190 countries. That means you’ll find at least one of our products in seven out of ten households on the planet. And we want every one of those products to make a positive impact on the lives of the people who buy them. I intend to build further on Unilever’s century-old commitment to responsible business. It is not about putting purpose ahead of profits, it is a purpose that drives profits.”
Many of Unilever’s brands are familiar favourites all over the world.
Lipton, Knorr, Dove, Rexona, Hellmann’s, Omo – these are just some of the 12 Unilever brands with
an annual turnover of more than €1 billion (Approximately 20 billion Rands).
At the same time, we make popular local brands. Brooke Bond in India. Brilhante in Brazil. Suave in the Americas. These local brands meet the specific needs of consumers in the markets where they are
sold. We use insight and innovation to make sure these brands perform for consumers. And we make sure that our brands take action on the issues that consumers care about.
Why we do it
We want our business to flourish, and we know that our success depends on others flourishing around us. That’s why our purpose is to make sustainable living commonplace, and why sustainable, long- term growth is at the heart of our business model.
Unilever’s Sustainable Living Report; three big goals:
- Helping more than a billion people to improve their health and
- Halving the environmental footprint of our
- Sourcing 100% of our agricultural raw materials sustainably and enhancing the livelihoods of people across our value
Delivering long-term growth
Unilever has grown dividends by an average of 8% per year over the last 38 years, with no reductions. From 2014 to 2019 we delivered average underlying sales growth of 3.3% per year.
We operate through three divisions. In 2019:
- Beauty & Personal Care generated a turnover of €21.9 billion (Approximately 438 billion Rands), accounting for 42% of our turnover and 52% of operating profit
- Foods & Refreshment generated a turnover of €19.3 billion (Approximately 386 billion Rands), accounting for 37% of our turnover and 32% of operating profit
- Home Care generated a turnover of €10.8 billion (Approximately 216 billion Rands), accounting for 21% of our turnover and 16% of operating profit
The world doesn’t stand still – and neither do we. Not only do we embrace change, but we also seek to make it. That applies to our brands – which achieve positive change through their purpose and value chains. It also applies to our business – which we are making future-fit, faster and more flexible.
Our 155,000 employees in more than 100 countries are key to our success. They deliver our growth strategy and represent our purpose in action. Their insight and innovation drive us to anticipate and act on the trends shaping our industry and our world.
Together, we’re redefining the future of work – more diverse, more inclusive, highly skilled and high- performing. And as a company, we’re redefining the way business is done. That’s how we’ll make sustainable living commonplace.
Source: Adapted from Unilever.com, (2020)
- Based on your review of Unilever’s supply chain from the above case study, discuss which functional areas would appear in their supply chain. Substantiate your answer using references from the above case study.
- Identify and describe each of the buyer-supplier relationships and determine which one is most likely used by Unilever. Substantiate your answer using perceptions created from the above case study.
- Describe and discuss the various techniques that you believe Unilever uses to develop and manage their supply chain relationships.
Unilever.com, (2020). About Unilever, Online (Available): https://www.unilever.co.za/, Accessed: 17.12.2020
PUBLIC MANAGEMENT 511
QUESTION 1: (50)
Provide a detailed discussion on the relevance and importance of the Systems Approach to the process of decision-making indicating how decision-making evolves at each stage of the public administrative process (e.g. Show how and why decisions are taken before, during and after the input stage, and so on)
QUESTION 2: (50)
“Over the last two decades there have been some fundamental changes in the working of government which have resulted in major and visible management innovations in the organizational structures and systems of government aimed at delivering greater efficiency, and more responsive and flexible public services. The innovations have led to the ‘New Public Administration’ (NPA) which discusses, inter alia, the strategies and actions employed in the new synergy between the public and private sectors, as well as the reforms in financial planning and control systems.”
With this view in mind, discuss the relevance and importance of the NPA in the public administration of the 21st Century.