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Topic – 1 A Birds Eye View To Approach a Research
TYPES OF RESEARCH
Quantitative – THE truth is out there. Say for instance at this moment in this auditorium there are 36 students or X number of students are present here to attend this workshop. This is quantitative information.
Qualitative – Multiple truths. Say , after you are done with today’s workshop and if you are asked to say fill up a feedback form whereby you can express YOUR individual judgment regarding the benefit of such workshop and if the workshop served your purpose of understanding Research Methodology , well that’s qualitative.
BASIC RESEARCH PLAN
WHAT IS DATA ?
Researcher are interested in Data.
So, what is Data?
Is Data Singular or Plural?
SELECTING YOUR TOPIC & TITLE
The first important task of a researcher is to find out what area he/she wants to research upon.
Having decided the area than comes a suitable title – that you can manage.
The title must be sufficiently clear to reflect the nature and intention of the research.
SUGGESTION OF A SUITABLE TITLE
Consumer Satisfaction on Using of Smart Phones among students of Malaysia.
Consumer Satisfaction on Using of Smart Phones among students of Kualalumpur, Malaysia .
Consumer Satisfaction on Using of Smart Phones among students of Universities in Kualalumpur, Malaysia.
Consumer Satisfaction on Using of Smart Phones among students of Undergraduates in Kualalumpur, Malaysia.
Consumer Satisfaction on Using of Smart Phones among undergraduate students of Public Universities in Kualalumpur, Malaysia.
Consumer Satisfaction on Using of Smart Phones among Undergraduate International Students of Public Universities in Kualalumpur, Malaysia Consumer Satisfaction on Using of Smart Phones among Undergraduate Business School’s International Students of Public Universities in Kualalumpur, Malaysia
SELECTING A SUITABLE TITLE
Each of the title just outlined has its own population size and based on that population we have to decide our sample size.
Larger the population we are targeting , it may be difficult for us to accumulate data and justify them.
More we are particular and make a segmented title selection – more FOCUS the research becomes and more specific population and manageable size data are obtained.
OR ELSE , Researcher starts COOKING data. Add to them SPICES to make it look more DELICIOUS.
INTRODUCTION/BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Overview of past and current status of existing research work.
What are the problems that need to be addressed and why the problems need to be resolved?
Provide a succinct outline of the reasons why the study should be undertaken and the general objectives of the study.
Problem Statement refers to identification specifically about the problem/s pertaining to the intended research arena opt by the potential researcher.
Define the Problems of the Research
Research problem statement is the foundation and focus of your research report.
Two things very important here: Firstly, it must be specific.
Finally, it must clear state the problem.
Purpose/ Objective of the Study
Here the researcher should clearly identify the purpose/s of the intention of the research.
Then what are his/her specific objective and ancillary objectives.
Objectives – Smart Approach
The objectives of the work must be clearly explained. An objective is a clear statement of something that needs to be accomplished over a period of time.
SMART Objectives are:
Specific – states exactly what you need to achieve Measurable – includes a quality or quantity measure Agreed – between you and your Reviewer
Realistic – can be challenging but must be achievable Time bound – with a clear end date or timescale
Research Objective Explained
Research objectives generally refer to the ‘big’ questions that you seek to engage.
Research questions are much more specific and refer to actual questions or issues that your research will address in furtherance of your research objectives.
In arriving at research questions, you should always ask yourself how the questions validate the research objectives guided by your central assumption.
Research projects differ in the number and kinds of questions that you identify. Sometimes you might identify one ‘big question’ and a number of smaller research questions, as in the example. Other times, a researcher might merely identify 2 or 3 questions that he or she will explore (without smaller ones).
Researcher based upon their research questions set up their research hypothesis.
As from research objectives the research questions are derived , in the similar manner from the research questions the hypothesis are derived.
Hypothesis are set of assumptions based on which the research is carried out.
Each research question will have 2 hypothesis. A Null hypothesis denoted by H0 and an Alternate Hypothesis, denoted by HA.
Say, if Research question is : Does job satisfaction among employees increase job performance ?
So, Hypothesis will be :
HO Job satisfaction has a relationship with job performance.
HA Job satisfaction has no relationship with job performance.
Show why your research idea is interesting within your research field by discussing what other scholars/writers have done and have not done with your topic in your field.
State how your thesis/dissertation will build on existing studies and yet explore new territory. It provides a thorough and up-to-date literature review on the proposed research topic with focus on the problem statements.
It provides references to all major relevant publications including the applicant’s own.
Are you doing a literature review or a survey?
Let us understand literature survey…………..and contrast with literature review………….
It’s a world of difference but researchers tend to get carried away… Literature time framework…
Modern Triangle approach to literature review….
Identifying A Gap/ Optional
Gaps in existing Research Unresolved issues on the topic of research and their importance of the proposed project in the context of current status are to be given in this part. Furthermore, possible utilization of research outcome can also be suggested.
Theoretical Framework and Background Information: Following a concise and critical review of the theoretical and research literature’s, the proposal should discuss the major theoretical premises and the salient concepts which underlie the problem or question(s). The proposal should then outline a framework, based on literature, for analyzing the problem and question(s).
Conceptual Framework (situates your work within a conceptual framework, explains key constructs, introduces or clarifies any theoretical models involves, and situations your work within prior theory and research on the question; begin with an introductory paragraph introducing the elements of the conceptual framework and conclude with a summation that helps review the need for your study and thus transitions to the methodology)
It should clearly show your population.
It should clearly reflect the sample size, identification.
The title of the thesis /project must be in connection with the methodology.
The data collection manner.
The data analysis tool and statistical analysis.
Researcher must clearly points out the limitations that they expect to face during the course of the thesis.
In simple words they are the challenges that may be faced by the researchers.
Time Line – In the Form of a Gantt chart
A Reference list must be included in the proposal. Referencing is preferred in Harvard Style/APA format. (See ‘Citing of References’ in Google for more standing)
Topics 2 – Finding the Right Topic and Research Problem
Finding the Right Topic
- How Do I Find “The Right Topic”?
- First, there is no “Right” What is hot today may be ice cold by the time that you go on the job market. You don’t want the nineteenth best paper of the year on a hot topic.
- Much more important is to find something that is important and genuinely interests you.
- There are great papers to be written in almost all You need to settle on an area where you are sufficiently interested that you don’t mind making some investments, since these investments are preparing you not only for thesis work but also for your next round of papers as an assistant professor
- How do I know if I have an interesting topic?
- First, be aware that “interesting” inevitably has a subjective, aesthetic component. So we cannot expect to find necessary and sufficient conditions for an interesting topic.
- Nonetheless, there are useful indicators.
- When I undertake a research project, I find it a useful artifice to think of one of the more sceptical members of the profession repeatedly pressing me with the question: “Why should I care?” How am I going to convince this sceptic that she should pay attention to my research?
- One part of the answer is that I am asking and answering a question that has some substantive real- world counterpart.
- Moreover, I would also like to be able to argue that the issue is an important one. Hence, real-world examples can be influential and magnitudes matter.
- In trying to convince yourself (and others), you should be as concrete as possible in explaining both the type of problem to which this applies and what the magnitude of the problem.
- Certainly an indicator (not a proof!) that a problem is interesting is that good minds have spent time thinking about I note this because most economists will grant the prior that if several leaders in a certain field have struggled with a problem, it is likely to bean
- important question (i.e. if these people spent most of their time struggling with unimportant problems, they would be unlikely to be leaders in their field!).
- But you should rely on this only as an You should be able to tell an independent story about why the area is important. Moreover, working on areas well combed over by the leaders of the field also has a number of pitfalls, discussed more fully below.
Some Way to find a Topic
There is no “one size fits all”
But, here are six common ways to find a topic
- A Flash of Brilliance
- You wake up one day with a new insight/idea
- New approach to solve an important open problem
- This rarely happens if at all
- Even if it does, you may not be able to find an advisor who agrees
Persevere—You Will Find a Topic
“ Every morning I would sit down before a blank
sheet of paper. Throughout the day, with brief interval for lunch, I would stare at the blank sheet. Often when evening came it was still empty… It seemed quite likely that the whole of the rest of my life might be consumed in looking at that blank sheet of paper…” (Bertrand Russell, autobiography)
- Divide the general area into progressively smaller units subdividing it until one reaches a subject that is interesting to research
- Let’s assume now that you have made a convincing case that the problem that you are addressing is one that we do care about – i.e. it is one with a real world counterpart of some significant magnitude. How do you convince your reader that you have something new and important to say about the problem? Let me stop to emphasize both new and important.
- The first step should surely be to talk to someone actually working in the area or at least reasonably familiar with it to find out if someone has already answered the question you are pondering (your adviser is hopefully a good starting point). Second, one can look at recent surveys of the literature or recent working papers directly on the topic as coming close to providing a “sufficient statistic” for what has been done before in the This can be extremely useful, but you should at least be aware that even serious academic work often contains “spin” that may tend to understate the accomplishments of older literatures relative to recent (especially those that the author has contributed to).
- Third, Citation Index can be extremely helpful in identifying related work and should be consulted carefully. If you are not familiar with both of these, you should stop reading this very instant and return once you have figured out how they are used.
Steps in conducting
- Selecting and Defining a Problem
- Describing the Method of Research
- Collecting Data
- Analyzing and Interpreting results
Defining a Problem
- This marks the beginning of a Research and is the most important and difficult steps
- Identifying and stating the problem in specific forms.
- Identifying the variables in the problem situation and defining them adequately.
- Generating tentative guesses of the relationship of the variables (hypotheses ) or writing the questions for which answers are sought.
- Evaluating the problem for its research ability.
Identifying a Thesis Problem
You need to be an expert in your area
Use papers’ references to get to original papers Keep an annotated bibliography of papers, note
- Main contribution
- Open questions
- How it relates to your interests, work
Talk to experts
- When they visit UDel
- At conferences and workshops
Attend talks, etc.
Carry a notebook to record notes, thoughts, etc.
- Question previous works’ assumptions
Identifying a Thesis Problem
You need to consider potential problems
- Consider hot topics carefully
- Thoroughly understand the problem
- Break problem into manageable pieces
- Develop methods that work for you
When to work deeply, broadly; when to put aside Set aside blocks of time to focus on research Work consistently on the problem
What is the Research Problem?
- Is the FOCUS of a research investigation of a problem that the researcher wishes to investigate.
Problem Written in Question Form
- What effect has an individualized programme had on the skill acquisition of technician students in a printing course.
Problem Written in Statement Form
- This study is designed to measure the effect the introduction of an individualized programme has had on the skill acquisition of technician students in a printing course.
A Statement of Purpose
- The purpose of this Study is to investigate the Impact the introduction of individualized programme has had on skill acquisition of technician students in a printing course.
Defining the Research Problem
- State your research problem.
- Are there any sub-problems?
- What is the background (literature review) on this problem?
- What is good about tackling this problem? Why should we be interested in answering the research question?
Problem Tree – Keep asking Why?
- The goal of this process of problem definition is to create research questions and hypotheses that:
- Are measurable–quantifiable/testable
- Are well-defined–no ambiguous language
- Are useful in decision-making or in answering the overall problem (What is the goal of business research?)
- Are directly connected to one another–hypothesis is not only a plausible answer to the research question but also directly answers the research question.
- Encompass the full scope of the problem– Have all the important or relevant questions been asked?
A Problem Statement Must Pass ROC Test.
Show the Study Is:
- Re searchable – the problem can be answered by collecting and analyzing data. (Doable)
Can be a repetitive study with new population/passage of time.
Make a difference in profession.
Reference ID: #getanswers2001079