CECE 2711 Management and Organization Coursework Assignment Answers 2020

CECE 2711-1 Management and Organization 2020 Autumn Assessment Rubric

Assessment Brief:

  • Topic: management and organization
  • Document Type: Coursework
  • Subject: Management
  • Deadline:*: As Per Required
  • Number of Words: 1000 words
  • Citation/Referencing Style: APA

Certification Course for Kindergarten Principals (English Stream)

 

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CECE 2711-1 Management and Organization 2020 Autumn Assessment Rubric: The importance of the topic for the development of an ECE institution Key theories, concepts and /or principles about the topic How to implement quality management and organization in an early childhood institution with focus on the topic selected Writing:

Organization, language and style of the essay (10%) (40%) (40%) (10%)

Excellent (A)

Excellent identification of the importance for the development of an ECE institution excellent discussion on the key theories, concepts and /or principles about the topic Excellent elaboration of strategies of implementation Excellent organization, language and style Good (B) Good identification of the importance for the development of an ECE institution Good discussion on the key theories, concepts and /or principles about the topic Good elaboration of strategies of implementation Good organization, language and style Satisfactory (C) Fair identification of the importance for the development of an ECE institution Fair discussion on the key theories, concepts and /or principles about the topic Fair elaboration of strategies of implementation Fair organization, language and style Pass (D) Simple identification of the importance for the development of an ECE institution Simple discussion on the key theories, concepts and /or principles about the topic Insufficient elaboration of strategies of implementation Weak organization, language and style Fail (F) Unsatisfactory identification of the importance for the development of an ECE institution Unsatisfactory discussion on the key theories, concepts and /or principles about the topic Unsatisfactory elaboration of strategies of implementation Unsatisfactory organization, language and style.

Session 4

Outline

Promoting participation, transparency and accountability in school operation

  1. Reinforce school management accountability:
  • Quality assurance
  • Staff appraisal
  1. Increase school transparency policy and guidelines

 

Part 1:    Reinforce school management accountability

 

A.  Quality Assurance

In the 21st century, school principals as the leader of the institution, should be able to face the challenges of education reform, develop quality control and establish quality assurance mechanism for the institution to provide good education services for students.

What is quality in early childhood education? Give your views below.

 

 

 

Dimensions of quality in education (United Nations Children’s Fund (2000))

  • Learners who are healthy, well-nourished and ready to participate and learn, and supported in learning by their families and communities;
  • Environments that are healthy, safe, protective and gender-sensitive, and provide adequate resources and facilities;
  • Content that is reflected in relevant curricula and materials for the acquisition of basic skills, especially in the areas of literacy, numeracy and skills for life, and knowledge in such areas as gender, health, nutrition, HIV/AIDS prevention and peace;
  • Processes through which trained teachers use child-centred teaching approaches in well-managed classrooms and schools and skillful assessment to facilitate learning and reduce disparities;
  • Outcomes that encompass knowledge, skills and attitudes, and are linked to national goals for education and positive participation in society

 

Rationale for having quality assurance in education institutions:

  • Control – internal- The leader of an organization/enterprise insures the accomplishment of the organization/enterprise purposes
  • Assurance- external- The consumer of client requires assurance that the product or services meet the
  • The assurance is a form of control. The verification for the consumer is done by some people independent of the producer.

There is a need to check if what is intended in education programme is really put into practice. Verification is needed to check if there are gaps between intention and actualities of a programme. Education Bureau is the official government department and one of the duties is to keep quality assurance in kindergartens (KGs).

 

Quality Assurance Mechanism in Hong Kong

The Hong Kong Government has implemented the new kindergarten education policy starting from the 2017/18 school year to provide good quality and highly affordable KG education, and enhance the accessibility of children to different modes of services that suit their specific needs. Enhancing the quality assurance (QA) Framework is one of the means to improve the quality of KG education under the new policy.

From 2004/2005 onward, KGs and kindergarten-cum-child care centres were encouraged to conduct School Self-evaluation (SSE). Through the practice of the inter- connected self-evaluation processes, viz. planning, implementation and evaluation as well as writing the School Report, the school culture of sustainable improvement has been cultivated gradually. KGs would then undergo quality review (QR) by EDB for validation of their self-evaluation. Kindergartens agree that SSE can foster the staff collaboration and the schools’ continuous improvement.

The Kindergarten Education Scheme has been implemented with effect from the 2017/18 school year. All KGs joining the Scheme are required to conduct on-going SSE and undergo QR for school sustainable development.

All KGs participating in the Scheme (Scheme-KGs) will continue to be subject to the QA Framework comprising School Self-evaluation (SSE) and Quality Review (QR), both of which are conducted on the basis of the Performance Indicators (PIs). To ensure the effectiveness of QA, EDB has refined the PIs in consultation with experts and frontline practitioners in early childhood education and released the new version in 2017. The refined PIs are used for SSE starting from the end of the 2017/18 school year and used for QR starting from the 2018/19 school year.

QR serves to complement SSE to foster the sustainable development of KGs. All Scheme-KGs will undergo QR for validation of their self-evaluation and be assessed if they have met the prescribed standards. The QA team (composed of EDB inspectors and other ad hoc field experts) will pay visits to kindergarten to conduct QR. The team refers to the performance indicators and makes professional judgment. For all the domains of the review, the KG should reach ‘acceptable’ standard. The results will be found in the Report written by the QA team. EDB will follow up by means of having the KG apply for focus inspection and submit an improvement plan. After 12 months, EDB will send another QA team to inspect the KG.

See more details:

  • https://edb.gov.hk/en/edu-system/preprimary-kindergarten/quality- assurance-framework/qr/qr-report/index.html
  • https://edb.gov.hk/attachment/en/edu-system/preprimary- kindergarten/quality-assurance-framework/EDBC18011E.pdf

To sum up, what are the three levels of quality assurance for Hong Kong pre-primary education?

1.
2.
3.

 

Discussion:

What do you think about the QA mechanism: any benefits and any pressure for kindergartens?

To involve all staff to participate in discussion for improving the quality of a kindergarten, the principal may set regular meetings with staff of different levels. Principal will listen to reports from the staff, share latest information with them, and provide a platform for staff to raise issues for discussion. In such pattern of interaction, the principal and all staff can work together to improve the quality of the kindergarten.

How often does your kindergarten hold regular meetings with the staff and other stakeholders?

People Aims How often?
a.     School Management Board Reporting, aiming at improving school system
b.    Leading policy teams Reporting, aiming at improving school system
c.     Administration units Reporting, aiming  at improving school management and administration
d.    Teaching staff Reporting, aiming at improving learning and teaching
e.     Individual teachers Discussing and negotiating aiming at enhancing teachers’ professionalism
f.     Students Listening    to    students    aiming    at understanding    their    learning and everyday living.
g.    Teacher Parent Association Informing and sharing school updates and coordinating school functions and activities
h.    Alumni Keeping in touch and seeking support from alumni
Others

 

B.  Staff appraisal

The Education Commission Report No. 7 recommended that all schools should put in place school-based management (SBM) by the year 2000. SBM should comprise a number of key elements, of which the development of formal procedures and resources for staff appraisal and staff development according to teachers’ needs is one of them. Schools have been advised, and in fact they all pledged, to establish a staff appraisal system by the end of the 2001/02 school year.

This section explores staff appraisal with reference to’ Teacher Performance Handbook’ and overseas examples.

Before setting the objectives of staff appraisal, the principal should establish appraisal system or mechanism and the protocol. The objectives of appraisal directly influences the criteria and the steps of appraisal. It is necessary for an alignment of school culture and aims of education with the staff appraisal. The format and criteria of teacher appraisal may then be determined.

Management of teacher work performance

Do you agree to the following description of the relationship between teachers and school in teacher performance management:

‘Teacher performance management is a continuous process for identifying, evaluating and developing the work performance of teachers, so that the goals and objectives of the school are more effectively achieved, while at the same time benefiting teachers in terms of recognition of performance, professional development and career guidance.’ (Education and Manpower Bureau, 2003)

The key functions of human resources management include:

  • Recruitment
  • Induction/ Deployment
  • Professional Development
  • Training and Development
  • Posting and Promotion
  • Performance Management
  • Supervision and Guidance
  • Performance Appraisal
  • Managing Weak Performance and Discipline

 

Below is a sample of appraisal system (EMB, 2003, p.4)

Discussion:

Appraisal cycle
  • Every year, every 2 years,…?
  • How about a new staff who needs to go through probation?
Selection and Training of Appraisers
  • What is the rank system of teaching/support staff in your institution?
  • By a higher rank than the appraisees?
  • Should the appraisers selected depending on the nature of the content of the appraisal: e.g. on teaching, on special duties like counselling?
Areas and Criteria of Appraisal
  • Who should set or decide on the areas, criteria and appraisal methods during their pre-appraisal interview?
  • If you were a principal, will you let appraisee participate in the areas, criteria and appraisal methods? Why or why not?
Areas of Appraisal
  • For teachers:
  • Teaching and teaching-related duties, non-teaching duties professional and personal competence
  • Is there be a *job description outlining a teacher’s responsibilities and scope of work in your institution?
  • How do you use it for reference for teacher’s appraisal?
  • *The areas of appraisal should be in line with the school goals, major concerns of the current year and programme plans under various subjects.
Criteria in Appraisal
  • The criteria in appraisal should include, as far as possible, concrete performance indicators.
  • hat should be the references for setting the performance indicators?
Appraisal Methods
  • Appraisal methods include collection of data on performance and appraisal interview. Data may include self appraisal and lesson observation. Some principals tend to scrutinize Schemes of Work, Lesson Plans etc.
  • In recent years, appraisees are asked to keep their portfolios.    The portfolio will demonstrate a teacher’s accomplishments over time and across a variety of experiences.
  • What should a teacher put in his/her portfolio?
Procedures of Appraisal Interview Appraisal interview provides an opportunity for genuine dialogue. It involves an exchange of information between the appraiser and the appraisee concerning the latter’s performance during the appraisal period.

  • The appraiser should assist the appraisee in evaluating the latter’s performance, and show appreciation and recognition on areas well performed during the appraisal period.
  • The appraiser should assist the appraisee in understanding his/her potential, teaching style and professional development needs, and thus help the appraisee work out a professional development programme, setting out objectives and expected outcomes.
  • The appraiser should understand the appraisee’s feelings, problems and expectations.
  • The appraiser and the appraisee should review the latter’s areas for improvement and work out a proposal for improvement, suggesting possible actions and the guidance needed, or professional development activities, together with the time-table for implementing the improvement measures.
  • The contents of appraisal interview vary with the objectives of appraisal.
  • For appraisal intended for professional development purpose, the appraiser should stimulate the appraisee to reflect on and improve the latter’s performance through the exchange of views.
  • For appraisal intended for accountability purpose, the appraiser should examine the appraisee’s roles and contribution to the school as well as his/her needs or constraints.      If necessary, the appraiser would also examine the duties performed by the appraisee.

 

Procedures for Establishment of Teacher Performance Management

Teacher Performance Management

Follow-up phase

Consider the following example:

The school develops a culture of open communication and encourages the teachers to express their views, engage in discussions and respect different views. Then, the school introduces lesson observation to encourage peer learning. Simple and descriptive (non-rating) forms are used to record information related to the lesson observation. After the teachers have adapted to the above arrangement, the system gradually meets the professional development needs.

In the early phase of implementation, the school uses simple appraisal forms focusing on communication and sharing, and avoiding excessive paper work.

The school identifies a number of teachers for trial of the system, carries out a pilot scheme and then extends it gradually to the whole school.

Teachers are invited to discuss the draft structure and implementation strategy of the appraisal system. Views are collected and amendments to the system are made. The appraisal system so formed are more acceptable to the teachers.

Teachers are enabled to understand the rationale and acquire the skills in lesson observation and appraisal interview. The school evaluates the progress towards the targets, its effects on teachers’ morale and teacher’s feedback so as to refine the system.

How to establish fair and harmonious relationship between principal and staff on appraisal?

a.   Give ongoing performance reviews

From the editing team of Exchange Press (2019), it is advised that after the probation period (typically 90 days), supervisors may check in with the new employees and conduct a quick review. They will then discuss training needs and goals for the next performance period. New teachers may reflect on their teaching practices and jointly set goals for continued improvement

There are three purposes:

  • Give employees the opportunities to discuss their performance with supervisor
  • Give the supervisor a means to discuss and identify the strength and challenges for each employee
  • Provide the supervisor a basis for salary recommendations.

What can be discussed in the review interviews ?

  • Both the employee and the organization are set up for success when clear expectations and job responsibilities are outlined form the beginning.
  • Questions relating to the candidate’s philosophy of learning, discipline and family relationship can help the interviewer determine if a candidate is a good philosophical match for the position.
  • Additional questions regarding work ethic and professional development may indicate if the candidate is self-motivated and willing to learn new skills and teaching practices.
  • Potential candidates may bring documentation of training cert, degreed earned or a portfolio of work to demonstrate their desire for continued learning.

 

What can be included in the final/annual review interview?

Fairness and objectivity are critical in measuring job performance. In the following check list of evidence based items, which ones do you think are essential or necessary?

Teachers/staff may bring along:

  • Sample lesson plans, children’s journals, sample daily notes and examples of documentation panels the teacher has created.
  • Parent surveys
  • Parent letter
  • Award nominations
  • Licensing files
  • Peer reviews
  • Health dept reports
  • Student portfolios
  • Student assessments
  • Sample daily notes or classroom newsletters
  • 360 review- feedback from peers, parents, supervisors, a client or parent board
  • others

b.  The strategy of giving feedback in the review interview:

  • Feedback should focus on behavior, not the
  • Feedback should be on what you observed, not inferences
  • Feedback should be on description, not
  • Feedback should be given unfiltered
  • Feedback should be in small doses
  • Feedback should be given on a timely basis
  • Avoid giving mixed messages
  • Check for reactions from the appraisee

 

Part 2: Increase school transparency policy and guidelines

Along with the implementation of the Kindergarten Education Scheme, school-based management enters a new stage of system. Scheme KGs will be held accountable for the quality management and they tend to adhere to the different administration and operation guidelines recommended by the Education Bureau.

It is necessary to have clear description of the position and the obligations of the sponsoring body, incorporated management committee, supervisor and principal in kindergartens. Besides, different stakeholders should participate in policy making of the institution for greater transparency of school operation. This can also foster school partners in collaborative participation in policy making. Incorporated management committee has its mechanism to monitor the school operation and the principal can use appropriate authority to fulfill his/her duties. In case there are complaints lodged by staff, established highly transparent procedure is activated to process the complaint.

Even if a kindergarten does not join the Kindergarten Education Scheme and follow the official guidelines of school-based management operation, as an education institution with effective school management, the principal/management board should make their own school transparency policy/guidelines. School transparency is about the release, sharing and/or disclosure of school information/data with stakeholders.

Why is school transparency necessary?

First of all, parents pay the school fee for the education services for their children in a school, and the government may subsidize part of school fee (e.g.

Kindergarten Education Scheme), transparency in school administration is thus necessary to provide a solid answer to such questions as where the school fee is being directed to and what achievement or learning progress the children made in each year.

Besides, school transparency is related to following benefits:

  • Share data on children including their learning progress (in portfolio), and health records etc. with parents for their children’s well-being and development
  • Disclose accounts and budgets in order to prevent leakages in their finance and avoid being suspected mismanagement of school funds
  • Transparent collaboration among teachers- they should share their teaching resources and innovative ideas with each other
  • Irregular release of info/data:________

Recall your work experience, and list some kinds of school information/data shared and what kinds of channels were used:

Items Kinds of info/data Channels
About children
About school finance
About teaching resources/ ideas

 

Suppose you were a kindergarten principal, can you set a bar on the school transparency policy and guidelines?

 

References

LEGCO document on ‘review on school-based management operation’ 28 March 2019/ (教育局局長就「檢討校本管理的推行」議案的總結發言 2019 年 3 月 28 日 ) *Chinese version only https://www.info.gov.hk/gia/general/201903/28/P2019032800698p.htm

United Nations Children’s Fund (2000). Defining Quality in Education . UNICEF Programme Division Education Document No. UNICEF/PD/ED/00/0. New York: Author. Accessed https://www.unicef.org/education/files/QualityEducation.PDF

Education Bureau (2013). School Self-evaluation Manual. Accessed 17 Jun 2020 https://www.edb.gov.hk/en/edu-system/preprimary-kindergarten/quality- assurance-framework/index.html

Education and Manpower Bureau (2003) Teacher Performance Management. February 2003. Accessed 18 June 2020 https://www.edb.gov.hk/attachment/en/sch-admin/sbm/sbm-forms- references/staff-appraisal-system/TPMguide.pdf

Exchange Press (2019). Developing people in early childhood organizations. Michigan: Thomson-Shore.

 

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